What is Java Virtual Machine & its Architecture || JVM Architecture & Functionality.

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Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is an abstract computing machine that allows Java programs to run on any platform, regardless of the underlying hardware and operating system. It is responsible for interpreting and executing Java bytecode, which is the compiled form of Java source code.

The architecture of the JVM is divided into three main components:

  1. Class Loader: This component loads the bytecode of the Java class into the JVM memory.

  2. Runtime Data Area: This area is where the JVM stores runtime data, such as method area, heap area, stack area, and program counter.

  3. Execution Engine: This component is responsible for executing the Java bytecode. The execution engine includes a Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler, interpreter, and garbage collector.

The JVM executes the Java program by loading the class files into the memory, interpreting the bytecode, and executing it. During the interpretation phase, the JVM converts the bytecode into machine code, which can be executed by the underlying hardware. The JIT compiler optimizes the performance of the Java program by compiling frequently used bytecode into machine code.

The JVM also provides a secure environment for executing Java programs by enforcing security policies, such as preventing unauthorized access to system resources and preventing the execution of malicious code.