English Grammar - Fundamental Points

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What is grammar?

The dictionary says: “Rules in a language for changing the form of words and joining them into sentences is Grammar.” In short, ‘Rules in a language’ are Grammar. It is the study of the laws of the language. These laws are essential to read, to write and to speak in that language.

The word ‘Grammar’ has come the Greek language. There it means ‘a letter’.


1.     Word          : A group of letters with a meaning.

Eg:-              rain, book, pen, dog, freedom etc…

2.     Sentence     : A group of words with a meaning.

Eg:-              Ram is a teacher

                     Akbar was a king

                     God has made the world

                     They will help us.


3.     Subject       : A noun, noun phrase or a pronoun that performs the action, A word or                      words about which something is said.

Eg:-              Venkat made a speech.

                     An old man was sitting under a tree.

                     We went to a movie.

                     Books are our best friends.

                     It  is pleasant here

                     Come here, boys!

4.     Predicate    : The part that tells about the subject.  A Predicate will have a verb in it.

Eg:-              Krishna is playing with his friends.

                     Salim runs a hotel.

                     Robert was in the army.

                     Here  comes the dog.

5.     Phrase:       : A group of words without a complete meaning. Most Phrases begin with

  prepositions. Phrases will not have finite verbs in them.

Eg:-            The boy sat on a chair.

                    Then men are under the tree.

                    We have waited for them.

6.     Clause        : A group of words with a subject and verb (predicate) giving complete / incomplete meaning.

Eg:-            1. They often go to library because they like books.

                   2. we saw a bird which was blue.

                   3. He is too old to run.

v In example 1, ‘They often goClick to library’ is a main clause, and ‘because they like books’ is a subordinate clause.

v A clause with a complete meaning is ‘a main clause’, and a clause with an incomplete meaning is ‘a subordinate clause’,

v In example 3, there is only one undivided clause.

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